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Sodium Reduction Resource Library

Find case studies, fact sheets, advocacy tools and more on sodium reduction interventions

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General Implementation Tools

Annotated Bibliography on Sodium Reduction

Key Resource

Annotated Bibliography on Sodium Reduction

Resolve to Save Lives

A collection of literature relevant to the science of salt reduction and on sodium reduction interventions

Global Sodium Reduction Strategies Course

Key Resource

Global Sodium Reduction Strategies Course

John Hopkins University

A nine-module online course to help policy makers and health advocates design, plan, and implement global sodium reduction interventions at low- and middle-income countries

Sodium Reduction Framework

Key Resource

Sodium Reduction Framework

Resolve to Save Lives

A summary of the recommended components of a comprehensive dietary sodium reduction program, which provides existing implementation tools and examples of successful programs worldwide

The SHAKE Technical Package for Salt Reduction

Key Resource

The SHAKE Technical Package for Salt Reduction

World Health Organization

A technical package designed to assist countries with the development, implementation, and monitoring of salt reduction strategies to reduce population salt intake

Accelerating Salt Reduction in Europe

Accelerating Salt Reduction in Europe

World Health Organization – Europe

A support package to help countries in the European region to initiate or accelerate efforts towards population sodium reduction

Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Through Salt Reduction (English/Spanish/Chinese)

Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Through Salt Reduction (English/Spanish/Chinese)

Resolve to Save Lives

Communication cards featuring 6 strategies to implement for successful population sodium reduction (available in: Spanish | Chinese)

Reducing Salt, Saving Lives

Reducing Salt, Saving Lives

World Action on Salt & Health

A fact sheet on the importance of salt reduction to population health and a one-page guide for policymakers and advocates who design and implement salt reduction programs

Salt-Smart Americas

Salt-Smart Americas

Pan American Health Organization

A technical package that offers a rationale and recommendations for a population-based approach to reduce dietary salt intake in adults and children in the Americas

Toolkit: Sodium Reduction

Toolkit: Sodium Reduction

Collection of salt reduction resources from CDC

WHO Sodium Country Score Card

WHO Sodium Country Score Card

World Health Organization

WHO’s monitoring tool that tracks countries’ progress in implementing policies and programs on population sodium reduction

Sodium Literature

Annotated Bibliography on Sodium Reduction

Key Resource

Annotated Bibliography on Sodium Reduction

Resolve to Save Lives

A collection of literature relevant to the science of salt reduction and on sodium reduction interventions

A Systematic Review of Salt Reduction Initiatives Around the World

A Systematic Review of Salt Reduction Initiatives Around the World

Santos, J.A. et al., Advances in Nutrition. 2021.

An evaluation of countries’ progress in reducing global salt intake by 30% by 2025

Priority Actions to Advance Population Sodium Reduction

Priority Actions to Advance Population Sodium Reduction

Ide, N. et al. Nutrients. 2020.

An article identifying high priority strategies that address reduction of sodium intake through home-cooked food, packaged food, food consumed outside the home

Communications & Advocacy

Advocacy Action Guide: A Toolkit for Strategic Policy Advocacy Campaigns

Advocacy Action Guide: A Toolkit for Strategic Policy Advocacy Campaigns

Global Health Advocacy Incubator

A how-to guide in planning and conducting an effective advocacy campaign that aims to strengthen public health policies

Calculating Lives Saved by Cardiovascular Health Intervention Tool

Calculating Lives Saved by Cardiovascular Health Intervention Tool

Resolve to Save Lives

A tool to calculate lives saved with successful salt intake reduction

Dietary Salt Fact Sheet and Call to Action: The World Hypertension League, International Society of Hypertension, and the International Council of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation

Dietary Salt Fact Sheet and Call to Action: The World Hypertension League, International Society of Hypertension, and the International Council of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation

The World Hypertension League. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2016.

A call to action for national hypertension and cardiovascular organizations to participate in research, education, and advocacy on the need for dietary salt intake reduction

NYC Health’s FAQs on Salt and Health

NYC Health’s FAQs on Salt and Health

NYC Department of Mental Health and Hygiene, United States

A FAQ sheet on the links between dietary salt intake and health

Presentation: Salt Reduction Advocacy Slide Deck

Presentation: Salt Reduction Advocacy Slide Deck

Presentation making the case for salt reduction from Resolve to Save Lives

Public Health Media Advocacy Action Guide: Elements of a Media Action Campaign

Public Health Media Advocacy Action Guide: Elements of a Media Action Campaign

Global Health Advocacy Incubator

A how-to guide in planning and conducting an effective media advocacy campaign that aims to strengthen public health policies

Sodium Reduction Factsheet

Sodium Reduction Factsheet

Resolve to Save Lives

A fact sheet that communicates the important role of sodium reduction in saving lives, through improving cardiovascular health

Sodium Reduction Framework Section 2: Design and Conduct an Advocacy Strategy

Sodium Reduction Framework Section 2: Design and Conduct an Advocacy Strategy

Resolve to Save Lives

Guidance on the recommended ways to develop advocacy campaigns for sodium reduction

WHO Collaborating Center for Population Salt Reduction

WHO Collaborating Center for Population Salt Reduction

WHO, The George Institute

Online platform for collaboration established to support member countries in meeting the new salt reduction targets by providing a platform for resources with technical advice as well as advocacy materials

Wold Action on Salt, Sugar, and Health

Wold Action on Salt, Sugar, and Health

WASSH

Global group/network mobilized in oner 100 countries providing resources and advice to enable the development and implementation of salt and sugar reduction programmes worldwide.

Nutrient Profiling

Nutrient Profile Models: A critical tool to enable nutrition policy interventions

Nutrient Profile Models: A critical tool to enable nutrition policy interventions

RTSL

Document outlines the five key stages in adapting NPMs to country-specific contexts

Sodium Reduction Framework Section 9: Nutrient Profiling Models

Sodium Reduction Framework Section 9: Nutrient Profiling Models

Resolve to Save Lives

Overview of key components of the development and uses of nutrient profiling models

Front-of-Package Labeling

Building momentum: Lessons on implementing a robust front-of-pack food label

Key Resource

World Cancer Research Fund International

A report on key recommendations and advice to policymakers who are designing and implementing front-of pack food labelling in nutrition policies

What’s in Our Food? A guide to introduce effective front-of-package nutrient labels

Key Resource

What’s in Our Food? A guide to introduce effective front-of-package nutrient labels

Vital Strategies & Global Food Research Program University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

A guidebook on the development of effective front-of-package nutrient labels

Changes in the amount of nutrient of packaged foods and beverages after the initial implementation of the Chilean Law of Food Labelling and Advertising: A nonexperimental prospective study

Changes in the amount of nutrient of packaged foods and beverages after the initial implementation of the Chilean Law of Food Labelling and Advertising: A nonexperimental prospective study

Reyes, M. et al. PLOS Medicine. 2020.

An article that reports evidence of a decrease in the amount of sugar and sodium in packaged foods and beverages after implementation of a food labeling law in Chile. For a study reporting impact on consumer purchasing, see Taillie et al., 2021.

Experimental Studies of Front-of-Package Nutrient Warning Labels on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Ultra-Processed Foods

Experimental Studies of Front-of-Package Nutrient Warning Labels on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Ultra-Processed Foods

Food Label and Nutritional Labeling Summary in Israel

Food Label and Nutritional Labeling Summary in Israel

Ministry of Health, Israel

A fact sheet that shows guidelines on the product and nutritional information expected on packaged foods in Israel

Front-of-Package (FOP) Food Labelling: Empowering consumers and promoting healthy diets

Front-of-Package (FOP) Food Labelling: Empowering consumers and promoting healthy diets

Global Food Research Program University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

A fact sheet presenting evidence and progress of food labelling policies globally

Global Industry Tactics to Weaken Front-of-Package Labeling Policies

Global Industry Tactics to Weaken Front-of-Package Labeling Policies

Global Health Advocacy Incubator

A newsletter of the latest updates on food industry tactics that block front-of-package labeling policies worldwide

Journal Article: "Evaluation of Chile’s Law of Food Labeling and Advertising on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages"

Journal Article:

Article from PLOS Medicine evaluating the 2016 law in Chile on food labeling and advertising

PAHO: Front-of-package labeling as a policy tool for the prevention of noncommunicable diseases in the Americas

PAHO: Front-of-package labeling as a policy tool for the prevention of noncommunicable diseases in the Americas

Pan American Health Organization

A report on key considerations and recommendations to the use of front-of-package labeling as an effective policy tool to reduce demand and support for ultra-processed food products with high sodium, fat, and sugar content

PAHO: Research to Support the Development of Front-of-Package Labeling Regulations for Food Products in the Americas: Methods, Tools, and Procedures

PAHO: Research to Support the Development of Front-of-Package Labeling Regulations for Food Products in the Americas: Methods, Tools, and Procedures

Pan American Health Organization

A report on methods, tools, procedures, and key recommendations on how to conduct research into front-of-package labeling

Sodium Reduction Framework: Section 10c: Front-of-package labeling regulations

Sodium Reduction Framework: Section 10c: Front-of-package labeling regulations

Resolve to Save Lives

A summary of the policy options recommended actions regarding Front-of-package labeling regulations

Sodium Targets for Packaged Food

PAHO Regional Sodium Targets

Key Resource

PAHO Regional Sodium Targets

Pan American Health Organization

Newly revised PAHO regional sodium targets for cardiovascular disease prevention through population-wide dietary salt reduction (released October 2021)

WHO Global Sodium Benchmarks for different food categories

Key Resource

WHO Global Sodium Benchmarks for different food categories

World Health Organization

A document that sets global sodium benchmarks for different food categories to help reduce salt intake using country experiences (released in 2020)

Setting Targets for Salt Level in Foods: A five-step approach for low- and middle- income countries

Setting Targets for Salt Level in Foods: A five-step approach for low- and middle- income countries

Downs, S.M. et al. Food Policy. 2015.

An article that identifies a five-step approach for setting sodium level targets in foods in LMICs

Sodium Reduction Framework Section 11: Government-led Sodium Targets for Packaged Food

Sodium Reduction Framework Section 11: Government-led Sodium Targets for Packaged Food

Resolve to Save Lives

Overview on the reccomended guidance regarding setting sodium targets for packaged food

Behavior Change/Media Campaigns

Introduction to Social Marketing for Public Health Online Course

Introduction to Social Marketing for Public Health Online Course

Pan American Health Organization & University of South Florida

A short course for public health professionals on how to use social marketing in developing an effective public health strategy

Reducing Sodium in Your Diet

Reducing Sodium in Your Diet

John Hopkins Medicine

An informational video that addresses the role of sodium in one’s diet and its effects on cardiovascular health

Salt Reduction Guide for Patients, Nurses, and Schools

Salt Reduction Guide for Patients, Nurses, and Schools

Resolve to Save Lives

A communication guide for patients, nurses, and school staff that features steps and approaches to reduce dietary salt intake. Salt Reduction Guide for Patients (available in: English | Hindi | Telugu) Sodium Reduction Counselling Guide For Nurses (available in: English | Hindi | Telugu) Also adapted for Ethiopia Nurses and Schools in Ethiopia

Salt Reduction Media Campaign in China: Hear What the Doctor Says

Salt Reduction Media Campaign in China: Hear What the Doctor Says

Salt reduction public service announcement from Resolve to Save Lives in China (Chinese with English subtitles) / 减盐科普短片(决心工程中国团队出品)

Salt Reduction Media Campaign in China: Love with Less Salt

Salt Reduction Media Campaign in China: Love with Less Salt

Vital Strategies – China & partners

A media campaign launched in China in 2019 warning people about the dangers of too much salt in their diet and its link to an increased risk of hypertension and stroke. Click here to see Hear What the Doctor Says, another educational video launched in China promoting a low sodium diet to improve cardiovascular health. 减盐公益广告(决心工程中国合作伙伴制

Salt Reduction Media Campaign in China: Low-salt home cooking recipe

Salt Reduction Media Campaign in China: Low-salt home cooking recipe

Video for Low-salt home cooking from Resolve to Save Lives in China (Chinese with English subtitles) / 减盐科普短片(决心工程中国团队出品)

Salt Reduction Media Campaign in Ethiopia

Salt Reduction Media Campaign in Ethiopia

Vital Strategies, Ministry of Health – Ethiopia

A video launched in Ethiopia to increase awareness of excess daily salt intake that leads to cardiovascular disease

Salt Reduction Media Campaign in Israel

Salt Reduction Media Campaign in Israel

Ministry of Health – Israel

A media campaign launched by Israel’s Ministry of Health to educate on the role of excess sodium in people’s diet and the high sodium content found in snacks Click here to see Fresh is Healthy, another educational video released in Israel encouraging consumers to avoid processed food and purchase fresh and healthy food.

Salt Reduction Media Campaign in Vietnam

Salt Reduction Media Campaign in Vietnam

Vietnam Ministry of Health and Partners

Testimonial style video on the harmful effects of high sodium consumption

Sodium Reduction Framework Section 17: Behavior Change Interventions

Sodium Reduction Framework Section 17: Behavior Change Interventions

Resolve to Save Lives

Overview on the recommended behavior change interventions for sodium reduction

Top Tips for Sodium Reduction

Top Tips for Sodium Reduction

Resolve to Save Lives

A fact sheet about tips on reducing dietary salt intake for Americans

Low-Sodium Salt Substitutes

Core Strategies to Increase the Uptake and Use of Potassium-Enriched Low-Sodium Salt

Core Strategies to Increase the Uptake and Use of Potassium-Enriched Low-Sodium Salt

Ajenikoko, A. et al. Nutrients. 2021.

Proposes a framework for a scalable and sustainable approach of low-sodium salt use in the home and identifies challenges and potential solutions for effectiveness of this strategy

Effect of Salt Substitution on Cardiovascular Events and Death

Effect of Salt Substitution on Cardiovascular Events and Death

Neal, B. et al. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2021

A study on the effects of using salt substitute over regular salt on cardiovascular health

Estimated Population Wide Benefits and Risks in China of Lowering Sodium Through Potassium Enriched Salt Substitution: Modelling Study

Estimated Population Wide Benefits and Risks in China of Lowering Sodium Through Potassium Enriched Salt Substitution: Modelling Study

Marklund, M. et al., The BMJ. 2020

A study on the benefits of nationwide potassium enriched salt substitution on cardiovascular health in China

Potassium-enriched salt substitutes as a means to lower blood pressure: benefits and risks

Potassium-enriched salt substitutes as a means to lower blood pressure: benefits and risks

Greer, R.C. et al. Hypertension. 2020.

Presents the rationale, current evidence on benefits and risks, and implications for using potassium-enriched salt substitutes as a strategy to lower blood pressure

Warning Labels for Potassium-Enriched Low-Sodium Salts

Warning Labels for Potassium-Enriched Low-Sodium Salts

Resolve to Save Lives, John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

A report justifying use of warning labels on potassium-enriched low sodium salts for consumers who have added risk on using the product

Marketing Restrictions

Building momentum: lessons on implementing robust restrictions of food and non-alcoholic beverage marketing to children

Building momentum: lessons on implementing robust restrictions of food and non-alcoholic beverage marketing to children

World Cancer Research Fund International

Advice to policymakers on designing and implementing nutrition policies, particularly focused on protecting children and adolescents from the impact of marketing on their food and beverage choices

NOURISHING Database: Restrict food advertising and other forms of commercial promotion

NOURISHING Database: Restrict food advertising and other forms of commercial promotion

World Cancer Research Fund International

A collection of policies that different countries have in place to reduce children’s exposure to food marketing

Set of recommendations on the marketing of foods and non-alcoholic beverages to children

Set of recommendations on the marketing of foods and non-alcoholic beverages to children

World Health Organization

A set of recommendations for national and international action to limit marketing of ultra-processed foods to children

Sodium Reduction Framework Section 12: Marketing Restrictions to Children

Sodium Reduction Framework Section 12: Marketing Restrictions to Children

Resolve to Save Lives

Overview on the recommended guidance regarding marketing restrictions to children

Sodium Added Outside the Home

Action framework for developing and implementing public food procurement and service policies for a healthy diet

Key Resource

World Health Organization

A resource that provides guidance for governments on how to develop, implement, and strengthen a healthy public food procurement or service on a national or sub-national level

LINKS Resources for Healthy Public Food Procurement Policies

LINKS Resources for Healthy Public Food Procurement Policies

Resolve to Save Lives

A food procurement resource guide that also features policy examples set in various countries

Sodium Reduction Framework: Interventions for Food Prepared Outside the Home

Sodium Reduction Framework: Interventions for Food Prepared Outside the Home

Resolve to Save Lives

A summary of the recommended internvetions for food prepared outside the home

Systematic Review on International Salt Reduction Policy in Restaurants

Systematic Review on International Salt Reduction Policy in Restaurants

Ding, J. et al. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health. 2020.

An article that provides an overview of global salt reduction policies in restaurants in many countries

Sodium Surveillance

Review of Methods to Determine the Main Sources of Salt in the Diet

Review of Methods to Determine the Main Sources of Salt in the Diet

From WHO/PAHO Regional Expert Group for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention through Population-wide Dietary Salt Reduction

Sodium Reduction Framework: Surveillance

Sodium Reduction Framework: Surveillance

Resolve to Save Lives

A summary of the recommended components of comprehensive nutrition surveillance programs and their applications